Table 5

HIV-1 RNA in HLA-DR+ or HLA-DR and Ki67+ or Ki67 T cells at early and late stages of infection and post-HAART LNs and tonsil biopsies were obtained from HIV-1–infected individuals in the acute, early and late stages of infection and post-HAART (22, 23,25). With the specific activity and complexity of the HIV probes for autoradiographic exposures of 24 hours, infected cells with ≥10 copies of HIV-1 RNA were detected. The frequency of T cells with HIV-1 RNA was determined by counting vRNA+cells in sections whose weight was calculated from the area, thickness, and density (16). This frequency × percent CD3+ cells gives the T cell frequency. Reduction after HAART was calculated from changes from baseline Ki67+ or Ki67 population size in late-stage patients 2 days after initiating HAART. The percentage of CD3+ T cells that were HLA-DR± or Ki67± and grain counts in these populations were determined as described (16).

State of infectionNumber of patientsPercent vRNA+cells Frequency of vRNA+ T cells per gram of LTViral RNA levels (grain counts per cell)
CD3+HLA-DR+Ki67+HLA-DR+HLA-DRKi67+Ki67
Acute49354461.1 × 106 654 ± 498141 ± 81752 ± 544144 ±  84
Early58559431.9 × 105 610 ± 436147 ± 69722 ± 480152 ±  75
Late108885762.9 × 105 NTNT538 ± 410165 ± 105
Day 2 post-HAART883NT366.8 × 104 NTNT398 ± 312150 ±  91