Table 1

Estimates for earth response parameters (with effective lithospheric thickness H 1 and effective viscosities ηum, ηlm for the upper and lower mantle) for three different regions. The continental mantle solution is based on sea level analyses for northern Europe (8, 51, 73), with the last solution including global rotational constraints for constraining lower mantle viscosity. The continental margin results are based on the analysis of the late Holocene data from Australia (29, 58). The oceanic result is a solution of Pacific sea levels in which the lower mantle viscosity has been constrained to the value in parentheses (80).

ModelH1(km)ηum (×1020Pa·s)ηlm (×1022Pa·s)
Continental mantle65–853–50.5–3
Continental margin mantle65–801.5–2.50.5–3
Oceanic mantle∼50∼1(1)