Table 1

The characteristics of predominant ruminal bacteria. Abbreviations are as follows: CU, cellulose; HC, hemicellulose; DX, dextrins; SU, sugars; ST, starch; PC, pectin; XY, xylans; L, lactate; S, succinate; GL, glycerol; AA, amino acids; OA, organic acids; H2, hydrogen; F, formate; CO2, carbon dioxide; A, acetate; E, ethanol; B, butyrate; L, lactate; P, propionate; Br, branched-chain volatile fatty acids; and CH4, methane.

SpeciesRuminal nicheFermentation products
Fibrobacter succinogenes CUS, F, A
Ruminococcus albus CU, HCA, F, E, H2
Ruminococcus flavefaciens CU, HCS, F, A, H2
Eubacterium ruminantium HC, DX, SUA, F, B, L
Ruminobacter amylophilus STS, F, A, E
Streptococcus bovis ST, SUL, A, F, E
Succinomonas amylolytica STS, A, P
Prevotella ruminocola, albensis,brevis, and bryantiiST, PC, XY, SUS, A, F, P
Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens ST, CU, HC, PC, SUB, F, A, H2
Selenomonas ruminantium ST, DX, SU, L, SL, A, P, B, F, H2
Megasphaera elsdenii L, SUP, A, B, Br, H2
Lachnospira multiparus PC, SUL, A, F, H2
Succinivibrio dextrinosolvens PC, DX, SUS, A, F, L
Anaerovibrio lipolytica GL, SUA, S, P
Peptostreptococcus anaerobius AABr, A
Clostridium aminophilum AAA, B
Clostridium sticklandii AAA, Br, B, P
Wolinella succinogenes OA, H2, FS
Methanobrevibacter ruminantium H2, CO2, FCH4