Table 3

The success of evolutionary engineering: mechanisms that reduce evolution can and do work on all three parts of the evolutionary engine. MECHANISMS THAT WORK TO SLOW EVOLUTION

Method of slowing evolution Example
Reduce variation in a fitness-related trait
Drug overkill with multiple drugsTriple-drug therapy for AIDS
Pesticide pyramiding
Ensure full dosage Direct observation therapy of tuberculosis
Reduce appearance of resistance mutations Engineer RT gene of HIV-1
Reduce pest population size Integrated pest management of resistant mutants Nondrug sanitary practices
Reduce directional selection
Vary selection over time Herbicide rotation
Vary choice of antibiotics, pesticides or antiretrovirals
Use nonchemical means of controlIntegrated pest management
Limit exposure of pests to selectionWithhold powerful drugs, e.g., restricted vancomycin use
Avoid broad-spectrum antibiotics Test for drug or pesticide susceptibility before treatment of infections or fields
Reduce heritability of a fitness-related trait
Dilute resistance alleles Refuge planting