Efficacy trials:
Recombinant gp120VaxGenThailand, North America, Europe/Results expected in 2003
Canarypox (multigenes)/rgp120Aventis Pasteur and VaxGenThailand/Late 2002 launch, U.S. and Thai govt. collaboration
Safety and Immunogenicity trials:
Canarypox (multigenes)/rgp120Aventis Pasteur and VaxGenCaribbean, South America/Similar to Thai study but smaller
LipopeptidesANRSFrance/Better as boost than prime?
DNA/modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA) (gag + CTL epitopes)Oxford and Nairobi U., International AIDS Vaccine Initiative (IAVI)U.K., Kenya/IAVI's most developed project
DNA/adenovirus (gag)Merck & Co. Inc.U.S./Worked well in monkeys, international trial sites soon?
Nef-tat fusion protein +/− rgp120GlaxoSmithKlineU.S./NIAID-sponsored
DNA (gag/pol)Vaccine Research Center (VRC), NIAIDU.S./VRC's first effort
Preclinical testing:
DNA/adeno (multigenes)VRC, NIAIDU.S./Made from multiclades
DNA-IL2/IG (multigenes)VRC, NIAIDU.S./Builds off monkey study
Adenovirus (multigenes)National Cancer InstituteU.S./Differs from other adeno vaccines because it replicates
DNA/fowlpox (multigenes) +/− cytokinesU. New South Wales, Australian National U., ViraxAustralia/Contains “immunity-enhancing” genes. NIAID-sponsored
MVA/fowlpox (multigenes)TherionU.S./NIAID-sponsored
DNA/MVA (multigenes)Emory U., NIAIDU.S./Worked well in monkeys
DNA/MVA (multigenes)Aaron Diamond AIDS Research Ctr.U.S./Plan to make version for China, IAVI support
DNA (epitopes)EpimmuneU.S., South Africa/Trying to make one vaccine for world
Salmonella delivering DNA vaccineInstitute of Human Virology, IAVIU.S./Given orally
Venezuelan equine encephalitis (gag)AlphaVax, IAVI, NIAIDSouth Africa, U.S./Unusual vector
A variety of approaches. When the search for an AIDS vaccine began, the field trained its sights on preparations that contained genetically engineered versions of HIV's surface protein. Only one of those early concepts survives, a gp120 made by VaxGen. The next vaccine in line, made by Aventis Pasteur, “primes” the immune system with a live-virus vector, canarypox, that carries HIV genes, and then “boosts” it with gp120. Although the prime-boost concept still holds center stage, naked DNA—at least for now—is the priming vector of choice, followed by a boost with a viral vector. As time moves on, expect more exotic vectors, such as Venezuelan equine encephalitis, and unusual carrying systems, such as Salmonella shuttling in a DNA vaccine. And if history repeats itself, you can bet that most of these vaccines will disappear before they ever make it to the finish line.