Table 1

Sample source, locality, age, and haplotype, based on a 257-bp segment of the mitochondrial control region (5). Haplotypes D1, D3, D6, D18, D25, and D26, shown in bold, have previously been reported (5), and all other haplotypes are novel. F:AM samples are from the American Museum of Natural History, New York. The ages for Alaskan samples are radiocarbon dates from the NSF-Arizona Accelerator, Mass Spectrometry Facility. RYBP, radiocarbon years before the present; C.E., calendar year (common era). Radiocarbon years were converted to calendar years using the tables in (29).

IDHaplotypeSourceLocalityAgeReference number
Pre-Columbian
JAL 330D27William IsbellIwawi, Bolivia>1000 yr B.P.
JAL 331D28William IsbellIwawi, Bolivia>1000 yr B.P.
JAL 332D29William IsbellIwawi, Bolivia>1000 yr B.P.
JAL 334D28William IsbellIwawi, Bolivia>1000 yr B.P.
JAL 337D28William IsbellIwawi, Bolivia>1000 yr B.P.
JAL 365 D26 Sonia GuillénChiribaja Baja, Peru1000 yr B.P.
PC 5D30Sonia GuillénChiribaja Baja, Peru1000 yr B.P.
PC 6D31Sonia GuillénChiribaja Baja, Peru1000 yr B.P.
PC 8 D25 Raúl ValadezTeotihuacan, Mexico1300 yr B.P.
PC10D32Raúl ValadezTexcoco, Mexico800 yr B.P.
PC 12D33Raúl ValadezTula (Hildago), Mexico1400 yr B.P.
PC 13 D6 Raúl ValadezTula (Hildago), Mexico1400 yr B.P.
PC 14D35Raúl ValadezTula (Hildago), Mexico1400 yr B.P.
Alaskan
Perm597 D3 F:AM 67156Fairbanks area, Alaska430 ± 55 RYBP; 1455 C.E.AA35220
JAL 27D36F:AM 67155AFairbanks area, Alaska320 ± 50 RYBP; AA35229
1530 or 1640 C.E.
JAL 42D37F:AM 30435Fairbanks area, Alaska228 ± 33 RYBP; 1665 C.E.AA37619
JAL 43D38F:AM 30436Fairbanks area, Alaska349 ± 37 RYBP;AA42304
1520, 1600, or 1630 C.E.
JAL 44 D3 F:AM 67154AFairbanks area, Alaska222 ± 39 RYBP; 1675 C.E.AA42305
JAL 45 D18 F:AM 70932Fairbanks area, Alaska307 ± 40 RYBP; 1640 C.E.AA42306
JAL 46D40F:AM 67155Fairbanks area, Alaska265 ± 43 RYBP; 1655 C.E.AA42307
JAL 49 D1 F:AM 68010Fairbanks area, Alaska220 ± 43 RYBP; 1675 C.E.AA42309
JAL 53D41F:AM 97133Fairbanks area, Alaska278 ± 40 RYBP; 1650 C.E.AA38450
JAL 59D42F:AM 30482Fairbanks area, Alaska401 ± 40 RYBP; 1475 C.E.AA38451
JAL 62D37F:AM 70963CFairbanks area, Alaska442 ± 35 RYBP; 1450 C.E.AA42311