Table 2

Kinase families expanded in human relative to those in fly and worm. See table S6 for more details.

FunctionFamilyHumanFlyWormNotes
Immunology, hemopoiesis,JAK410Couple cytokine receptors to transcription
angiogenesisPDGFR/VEGFR820Angiogenesis, vascular growth factor receptors
Tec510Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
Src1123Nonreceptor tyrosine kinase
IRAK411IL-1 receptor–associated kinase
Tie200Tie and Tek RTKs
IKK420IκB kinase, NF-κB signaling
RIPK500Receptor-interacting protein kinase, NF-κB signaling
Axl300Immune system homeostasis
NeurobiologyEph1411Ephrin receptors
Trk300–1Neurotrophin receptors
MAPK cascadesSte11922(MAP3K)
Ste20311312(MAP4K)
Ste78410(MAP2K) Has distinct worm-specific expansion
ApoptosisDAPK511Death-associated protein kinase family
RIPK500Transduces death signal from TNF-α receptor
Lmr300Lmr1, aka apoptosis-associated tyrosine kinase (AATYK)
Calcium signalingCaMK1511Calmodulin (CaM)–regulated kinases
CaMK2411Calmodulin (CaM)–regulated kinases
EGF signalingEGFR411Epidermal growth factor receptor family
RSK/RSK411Ribosomal protein S6 kinases; RSK1-3 activated by MAPK in response to EGF
Tao311Tao3 activated by EGFR
Src1123Src implicated in EGF signaling
HUNK100Hormonally up-regulated Neu-associated kinase
OtherTrio300Fly and worm orthologs lack the kinase domain
Trbl310Unpublished homologs ofDrosophila trbl
PDK511Mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases
HIPK411Homeodomain-interacting protein kinases
STKR1253TGF-β, Activin receptors
BRD411Bromodomain-containing atypical kinases
Wnk411Implicated in hypertension
NKF3200Uncharacterized (new kinase family 3)
NKF4200Uncharacterized (new kinase family 4)
NKF5200Uncharacterized (new kinase family 5)
CDKL511Cyclin-dependent kinase-like