Table 1 Comparison of conventional and exceptional broadly neutralizing antibodies.

CharacteristicsConventional antibodiesExceptional broadly neutralizing antibodies
Neutralizing potency in vitro
Tier 1 pseudoviruses
<0.02 to >50 ug/ml (57)
<0.04 to 26 ug/ml (58)
<<1 ug/ml
Tier 2 pseudoviruses0.6 to >50 ug/ml (57)
15 to >50 ug/ml (58)
0.02 to 27 ug/ml (6264)
Percentage VH chain somatic hypermutation from germline1 to 12% (59, 60)17 to 48% (16, 62, 65)
Breadth of neutralization
Tier 1 pseudoviruses
29 to 42% (57);
50 to 90% (26);
7 to 50% (58)
100%
Tier 2 pseudoviruses1 to 4% (57)
0 to 9% (58)
72 to 100% (62, 6567)
Vaccine strategy requiredPrime (ALVAC) + Boost (gp120) (43)
Prime (DNA or pox vector) + Boost (gp120 protein) or recombinant protein alone (61)
Prime (DNA) + Boost (epitope-scaffold protein immunogen) (20)
Starting with a bnAb, infer the full antibody lineage, including the unmutated ancestor and early intermediates and use their sequences as templates for the design of HIV-1 immunogens with high-affinity binding to design sequential immunogens to guide the Ab response to produce bnAbs.
Prevalence in infectionPresent in virtually all infected individuals1 to 25% (13)
Time needed to evolveWeeks to months (41, 42)Months to years (11, 12)