Table 1 Support and rejection for hypothesized relationships between human and zebra finch brain regions.

We allowed Wernicke’s area to be any subregion in the superior temporal gyrus; Broca’s area to be either the opercular part or the triangular part of the inferior frontal gyrus; the supplementary motor area to be any part of the encompassing superior frontal gyrus. The specialization of the finch forebrain to Area X + VS and finch forebrain to pallium was compared to the human specializations of the amygdala, claustrum, cortex, globus pallidus, and striatum. The finch striatum (Area X + VS) to Area X was compared to caudate, putamen, and nucleus accumbens. The finch specialization of the pallium to RA, HVC, and LMAN was compared to all subregions of the human cortex relative to the entire cortex, as well as each subregion/cortical layer combination in macaque. Significantly supported hypotheses are in bold.

Finch specializationHuman region/macaque cortex layerReferenceCorrelationPermutation Abbreviation
Forebrain to palliumTelencephalon to cortex(4, 41)0.1050.0680.218Cx
Telencephalon to claustrum(45)0.0070.5370.595Cl
Telencephalon to amygdala(45)–0.0830.8401.000Amg
Forebrain to Area X + VSTelencephalon to striatum(41, 44)0.2070.0010.001Str
Telencephalon to globus pallidus(44, 46, 48)–0.0680.8001.000GP
Striatum to Area XStriatum to putamen(41, 44)0.1080.0310.082Pu
Striatum to caudate(41, 44)0.0370.0010.393Cd (BCd)
Striatum to nucleus accumbens (48)–0.1410.9951.000Acb
Pallium to RAPrecentral gyrus, central sulcus(4, 41, 49, 84)0.1390.0030.017PrG_cs
Layer 5, motor cortex(44)0.1320.0000.011PrGxL5
Cingulate cortex(4)0.0890.0000.051CgGf (CgGf_i)
Pallium to HVCWernicke’s area(4)0.0450.3020.999STG
Broca’s area(4, 84)0.0060.5051.000opIFG or trIFG
Supplementary motor area(4)–0.0040.4911.000SFG
Layers 2/3(85)0.0460.2080.908PoGxL2
Layer 4(68)0.0260.4690.998TAxL4
Pallium to LMANBroca’s area(41)0.0360.1480.997opIFG or trIFG
Anterior cingulate(84)–0.0851.0000.849CgGf
Layer 4(68)0.0890.0700.249PoGxL4
Brainstem to XIIMyencephalon to hypoglossal nucleus(44)0.0090.4401.000n12
Myencephalon to vagus motor nucleusNo proposal0.1250.0400.040n10
Myencephalon to nucleus ambiguus(54)NANANANA