Table 1

Examples of second-level variables under first-level core subsystems (S, RS, GS, RU, U, I, O and ECO) in a framework for analyzing social-ecological systems. The framework does not list variables in an order of importance, because their importance varies in different studies. [Adapted from (12)]

Social, economic, and political settings (S)
S1 Economic development. S2 Demographic trends. S3 Political stability.
S4 Government resource policies. S5 Market incentives. S6 Media organization.
Resource systems (RS)Governance systems (GS)
RS1 Sector (e.g., water, forests, pasture, fish)
RS2 Clarity of system boundaries
RS3 Size of resource system*
RS4 Human-constructed facilities
RS5 Productivity of system*
RS6 Equilibrium properties
RS7 Predictability of system dynamics*
RS8 Storage characteristics
RS9 Location
GS1 Government organizations
GS2 Nongovernment organizations
GS3 Network structure
GS4 Property-rights systems
GS5 Operational rules
GS6 Collective-choice rules*
GS7 Constitutional rules
GS8 Monitoring and sanctioning processes
Resource units (RU)Users (U)
RU1 Resource unit mobility*
RU2 Growth or replacement rate
RU3 Interaction among resource units
RU4 Economic value
RU5 Number of units
RU6 Distinctive markings
RU7 Spatial and temporal distribution
U1 Number of users*
U2 Socioeconomic attributes of users
U3 History of use
U4 Location
U5 Leadership/entrepreneurship*
U6 Norms/social capital*
U7 Knowledge of SES/mental models*
U8 Importance of resource*
U9 Technology used
Interactions (I) → outcomes (O)
I1 Harvesting levels of diverse users
I2 Information sharing among users
I3 Deliberation processes
I4 Conflicts among users
I5 Investment activities
I6 Lobbying activities
I7 Self-organizing activities
I8 Networking activities
O1 Social performance measures
       (e.g., efficiency, equity, accountability, sustainability)
O2 Ecological performance measures
       (e.g., overharvested, resilience, bio- diversity, sustainability)
O3 Externalities to other SESs
Related ecosystems (ECO)
ECO1 Climate patterns. ECO2 Pollution patterns. ECO3 Flows into and out of focal SES.

*Subset of variables found to be associated with self-organization.