Table 1.

Comparison of corn ethanol and gasoline greenhouse gasses with and without land-use change by stage of production and use (grams of GHGs CO2 equivalents per MJ of energy in fuel) (28). Figures in total column may not sum perfectly because of rounding in each row. Land-use change was amortized over 30 years. Dash entries indicate “not included.”

Net land-use effects
Source of fuelMaking feedstockRefining fuelVehicle operation (burning fuel)Feedstock carbon uptake from atmosphere (GREET)Land-use changeTotal GHGs% Change in net GHGs versus gasoline
Gasoline +4 +15 +72 0 - +92 -
+74 -20%
Corn +135 +47%
    ethanol (GREET) +24 +40 +71 -62 - without feedstock credit without feedstock credit
Corn
    ethanol plus land use change +24 +40 +71 -62 +104 +177 +93%
Biomass
    ethanol (GREET) +10 +9 +71 -62 - +27 -70%
Biomass
    ethanol plus land use change +10 +9 +71 -62 +111 +138 +50%