Table 2.

Core signaling pathways and processes genetically altered in most pancreatic cancers. A complete listing of the gene sets defining these signaling pathways and processes and the statistical significance of each gene set are provided in table S8.

Regulatory process or pathwayNumber of genetically altered genes detectedFraction of tumors with genetic alteration of at least one of the genesRepresentative altered genes
Apoptosis 9 100% CASP10, VCP, CAD, HIP1
DNA damage control 9 83% ERCC4, ERCC6, EP300, RANBP2, TP53
Regulation of G1/S phase transition 19 100% CDKN2A, FBXW7, CHD1, APC2
Hedgehog signaling 19 100% TBX5, SOX3, LRP2, GLI1, GLI3, BOC, BMPR2, CREBBP
Homophilic cell adhesion 30 79% CDH1, CDH10, CDH2, CDH7, FAT, PCDH15, PCDH17, PCDH18, PCDH9, PCDHB16, PCDHB2, PCDHGA1, PCDHGA11, PCDHGC4
Integrin signaling 24 67% ITGA4, ITGA9, ITGA11, LAMA1, LAMA4, LAMA5, FN1, ILK
c-Jun N-terminal kinase signaling 9 96% MAP4K3, TNF, ATF2, NFATC3
KRAS signaling 5 100% KRAS, MAP2K4, RASGRP3
Regulation of invasion 46 92% ADAM11, ADAM12, ADAM19, ADAM5220, ADAMTS15, DPP6, MEP1A, PCSK6, APG4A, PRSS23
Small GTPase—dependent signaling (other than KRAS) 33 79% AGHGEF7, ARHGEF9, CDC42BPA, DEPDC2, PLCB3, PLCB4, RP1, PLXNB1, PRKCG
TGF-β signaling 37 100% TGFBR2, BMPR2, SMAD4, SMAD3
Wnt/Notch signaling 29 100% MYC, PPP2R3A, WNT9A, MAP2,TSC2, GATA6, TCF4