Table 1.

Macroevolutionary phenomena and their support for either the Red Queen (biotic, intrinsic) or Court Jester (physical, extrinsic) models. Many could fit either worldview, and so are noted as “multilevel mixed.”

Red QueenCourt JesterMultilevel mixed
Interspecific competition Waxing and waning of clades in association with tectonic and oceanographic events (2, 17) Vicariance and dispersal in major phylogenetic splits (17)
Character displacement Mass extinctions and smaller extinction events triggered by extrinsic causes such as eruptions, climate change, anoxia, impact (10, 11) Latitudinal diversity gradient (22-24)
Evolutionary arms races (1) Coordinated turnovers, originations, and extinctions in response to physical perturbations— termed “coordinated stasis” or “turnover pulse” hypothesis (2, 29, 30) Occupation of new ecospace (25)
Constancy of ecological guilds through time (25) Nonconstant probability of extinction (3, 11) Subdivision of niches/specialization (10, 25)
Incumbency advantage (3, 24) Lack of evidence for a global carrying capacity and equilibrium levels (8, 10) Declining global extinction rates through time (1, 5)
Lack of cohesiveness of the great “evolutionary faunas” (12) Onshore-offshore patterns and disturbance (3)
Species richness—energy relationship (18, 19) Resource use: stenotopes are more speciose than eurytopes (29, 30)
Inverse relationship between global temperature and biodiversity (21)
Lack of clear correlation of species richness with body size or other biotic factors (16)