Table 1.

Other examples of basic biological modules that could regulate form and function.

ModuleTypeMajor conceptReferences
Switch Soluble morphogen Spatial modulation of growth factor receptors in oogenesis (66, 67)
Morphogen regulation of PCP (68, 69)
Focal adhesion Force-dependent signaling of adhesion complexes (70, 71)
Connector Cell-cell binding Adherens junctions and β-catenin in nonmetazoans (72)
Cell sorting and segregation scales with cadherin levels (73)
Peripheral myosin regulates cell intercalation (74)
Focal adhesion Molecular clutch hypothesis for focal adhesions (75, 76)
Capacitor Plasma membrane Lipid raft-induced membrane curvature (77)
Transistor ECM Storage of growth factors to guide tissue development and direct cancer progression (78, 79)