Table 1 Neandertal alleles explain risk for human clinical traits.

The eight traits for which Neandertal alleles explained a nominally significant proportion of variance in risk in both the E1 discovery and E2 replication analyses are listed (GCTA, P < 0.1). The depression association remained significant after controlling the false discovery rate at 5%. The Neandertal associations with actinic keratosis, mood disorders, and depression were also maintained in a two-GRM model that considered the risk explained by non-Neandertal variants. Phenotypes are sorted by their E2 P value.

PhenotypeDiscovery (E1)Replication (E2)Replication
(E2; two-GRM)
Risk explainedPRisk explainedPRisk explainedP
Actinic keratosis0.64%0.0663.37%0.00592.49%0.036
Mood disorders1.11%0.00910.75%0.0180.68%0.029
Depression2.03%0.00231.15%0.0201.06%0.031
Obesity0.59%0.0481.23%0.0300.39%0.27
Seborrheic keratosis0.77%0.0380.61%0.0450.41%0.13
Overweight0.60%0.0370.53%0.0520.23%0.24
Acute upper respiratory infections0.70%0.0430.56%0.0620.34%0.18
Coronary atherosclerosis0.68%0.040.42%0.0980.34%0.15