Table 1 Effect of three-in-one policy-lifting on restricted and unrestricted roads.

Each column shows the policy effect in a given time interval. The outcome variable is delay (min/km) measured using “live” Google Maps API data. The sample is described in Fig. 2. The sample in each column is restricted to the departure time interval (open on the right) in the column header. For 31 March, data are available for the evening peak onward. Coefficients are from linear regressions of traffic delay (min/km) on post–policy-lifting and road direction indicators. Standard errors reported in parentheses are clustered at the date times road direction level. Significance levels: *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.

123456
Time interval6:00 to 7:00 a.m.7:00 to 10 a.m.10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.4:30 to 7:00 p.m.7:00 to 8:00 p.m.8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
(A) Delay on three-in-one road (Jalan Sudirman)
Policy-lifting–0.000.98***0.55**2.48***1.98***0.05
(0.05)(0.07)(0.23)(0.30)(0.34)(0.08)
Northbound0.24***0.12–0.98***–1.48***–2.01***–0.08
(0.01)(0.12)(0.16)(0.26)(0.36)(0.05)
Observations26479217206702702656
Control mean1.922.142.982.843.591.87
(B) Delay on alternate road (Jalan Rasuna Said)
Policy-lifting0.030.130.71***0.60***1.32***0.16*
(0.03)(0.09)(0.12)(0.20)(0.37)(0.09)
Northbound–0.08***–0.14–0.80***–4.24***–4.03***–0.77***
(0.02)(0.09)(0.17)(0.21)(0.33)(0.07)
Observations26479217206702702656
Control mean2.193.342.714.353.611.89