Table 2 Effect of three-in-one policy-lifting using “predicted” counterfactual.

Each column shows the policy effect in a given time interval. The outcome variable is delay (min/km), measured using “live” or “predicted” Google Maps API data. The sample is described in Fig. 3. The sample in each column is restricted to the departure time interval (open on the right) in the column header. Coefficients are from linear regressions of traffic delay (min/km) on “live” and road direction indicators. Standard errors reported in parentheses are clustered at the date times road direction level. Significance levels: *P < 0.10; **P < 0.05; ***P < 0.01.

Time interval6:00 to 7:00 a.m.7:00 to 10:00 a.m.10:00 a.m. to 4:30 p.m.4:30 to 7:00 p.m.7:00 to 8:00 p.m.8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m.
(A) Delay on former three-in-one roads (Jalan Sudirman and Jalan Gatot Subroto)
Control mean1.932.232.753.313.631.83
(B) Delay on alternate routes (identified by Jakarta Department of Transportation)
Control mean2.413.123.083.613.252.27