Table 1 Summary statistics for treatment and control groups.

Observations for treatment and control: PFOs, 564 and 535; villages, 60 and 61. Subsample means with standard deviations in brackets. The last column reports the regression-adjusted difference in means between the treatment and control subsample divided by the pooled standard deviation. None of the differences has a P < 0.10. The standardized difference and P values are based on a regression with subcounty fixed effects and clustering at the village level. IHS denotes inverse hyperbolic sine. Tree cover in village, percentage of village with tree cover, and percentage change in vegetation in village are at the village level. The data source for variables with Tree cover in the variable name is the baseline QuickBird satellite image. The source for percentage change in vegetation is 1990 and 2010 Landsat satellite images. The source for all other variables is the baseline survey.

TreatmentControlND
Household head’s age 47.499 [13.605]47.589 [14.659]0.003
Household head’s years of education 7.715 [4.003]7.931 [4.187]–0.056
IHS of self-reported land area (ha) 4.062 [1.021]4.004 [0.968]0.053
Self-reported forest area (ha) 1.727 [3.318]2.068 [12.413]–0.042
Cut any trees in the last 3 years 0.845 [0.362]0.858 [0.350]–0.031
Cut trees to clear land for cultivation 0.236 [0.425]0.241 [0.428]–0.016
Cut trees for timber products 0.704 [0.457]0.721 [0.449]–0.037
Cut trees for emergency/lumpy expenses 0.25 [0.433]0.292 [0.455]–0.088
IHS of total revenue from cut trees 1.238 [2.118]1.397 [2.248]–0.085
Rented any part of land 0.163 [0.370]0.198 [0.399]–0.091
Dispute with neighbor about land 0.218 [0.413]0.206 [0.405]0.035
Involved in any environmental program 0.100 [0.301]0.111 [0.315]–0.035
Agree: Deforestation affects the community 0.539 [0.499]0.548 [0.498]–0.014
Agree: Need to damage environ. to improve life 0.064 [0.245]0.043 [0.204]0.089
Tree cover in village (ha) 134.515 [108.800]159.18 [178.011]–0.169
Percentage of village with tree cover 0.247 [0.122]0.263 [0.132]–0.122
Percentage change in vegetation in village, 1990–2010 0.036 [0.041]0.041 [0.033]–0.128
Tree cover in PFO land circle (ha) 4.355 [12.466]3.845 [9.178]0.050
Percentage of PFO land circle with tree cover 0.199 [0.161]0.209 [0.157]–0.044
Percentage change in vegetation in PFO land circle, 1990–2010 0.035 [0.066]0.037 [0.058]–0.016