Table 4 Effects of the PES program on secondary outcomes.

All columns include subcounty fixed effects and the four village-level baseline variables used to balance the randomization. Columns 1, 4, 5, and 6 control for the baseline value of the outcome. Baseline data on the outcomes in columns 2 and 3 were not collected. IHS denotes inverse hyperbolic sine. For observations where the baseline outcome is missing, the value is imputed as the sample mean, and the regression includes an indicator variable for whether the baseline value is imputed. Standard errors are clustered by village. Significance: *P < 0.10, **P < 0.05, ***P < 0.01.

Cut any trees in
the past year
Allow others
to gather firewood
from own forest
Increased patrolling
of the forest in
last 2 years
Has any fence around
land with
natural forest
IHS of food
expend. in past
30 days
IHS of nonfood
expend. in past
30 days
(1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)
Treatment group–0.140***–0.170***0.109***0.0360.0650.156**
[0.034][0.033][0.039][0.033][0.074][0.066]
Lee bound (lower)–0.161***–0.185***0.094**0.007–0.0290.053
[0.034][0.033][0.039][0.033][0.070][0.064]
Lee bound (upper)–0.104***–0.148***0.132***0.0550.144*0.215***
[0.033][0.032][0.039][0.034][0.075][0.064]
Control group mean0.4530.4270.3780.6672.5244.363
Control group SD[0.498][0.495][0.485][0.472][1.177][1.354]
Observations10189767984102010201020
Observations (Lee bounds)994957965998998998