Table 1 Examples of evolution in noncommensal species in response to urbanization.

Columns show species’ common and scientific names; the region of study (Africa, AF; Asia, AS; Europe, EU; North America, NA); the maximum number of cities examined in a single study; whether studies examined molecular genetic (G) or heritable phenotypic (P) evolutionary changes; and the mechanisms of evolution examined (mutation, U; genetic drift, D; gene flow, M; selection, S). A comprehensive list and description of species studied is included in table S1.

Common nameScientific nameRegionNumber of citiesPhenotypic/
genetic
MechanismCitations
Virus
DengueDengue virus type 4NA-GS, D (58)
Plants
Holy hawksbeardCrepis sanctaEU1PS (39, 72, 73)
Virginia pepperweedLepidium virginicumNA5G, PS, M (83)
White cloverTrifolium repensNA4G, PS (36)
Insect
Peppered mothBiston betulariaEU-G, PS (32, 69, 70, 127)
Fish
KillifishFundulus heteroclitusNA4G, PS, D, M (33, 84, 128, 129)
Amphibians and reptiles
Crested anoleAnolis cristatellusNA3PS (82)
Eastern water dragonIntellagama lesueuriiAU1G, PS, D, M (75)
Red-backed salamanderPlethodon cinereusNA1GD, M (46, 130)
Common wall lizardPodarcus muralisEU1GM (61)
Fire salamanderSalamandra salamandraEU2GD, M (47, 131)
Birds
House finchCarpodacus mexicanusNA1G, PS (71, 132)
Dark-eyed juncoJunco hyemalisNA1PS, D (76, 81, 111, 133)
Herring gullLarus argentatusNA6GU (30, 126)
Common blackbirdTurdus merulaEU13P, GS, D, M (38, 51, 78, 134, 135)
Mammals
Striped field mouseApodemus agrariusEU1GD, M (43, 136)
HumanHomo sapiensAF,AS,
EU
17GS (86)
BobcatLynx rufusNA1GS, D, M (57)
White-footed mousePeromyscus leucopusNA1GS, D, M (37, 65, 85, 112, 137, 138)