Table 1 Characteristics of CAR- and TCR-engineered T cells.

CAR T cellsTCR T cells
Signal amplification from synthetic biology:
200 targets can trigger CAR T cells (57)
Sensitive signal amplification derived by
evolution of the TCR
Avidity-controllableLow-avidity, unless engineered (58)
CAR targets surface structures:
proteins, glycans
TCR targets intracellular proteome
MHC-independent recognition of tumor targetsRequires MHC class I expression and HLA
matching on tumor
At least decade-long persistence (59)Lifelong persistence
Serial killers of tumor cells (60)Serial killers of tumor cells (60)
Cytokine release syndrome more severe
than with TCR-based therapy
Off-tumor toxicity difficult to predict (7)