Table 2 Lidar visualizations.

Raster visualization combinations created and used for feature identifications.

Terrain visualizationRaster comboColor ramp/band comboTransparencyUtilityNotes
Simple Local Relief
Model (SLRM)
Very small buildings,
slight depressions,
agricultural features
Layer 1SLRMBlack to white0%Created in Relief Visualization
Toolbox (RVT) (30)
Modified Red Relief
Image Map (RRIM)
Small buildings,
depressions,
contour terraces
Based on procedures
detailed in (31)
Layer 1SlopeCustom: white to red0% Created in ArcToolbox Slope;
visualized in QGIS with
blending mode “multiply”
Layer 2SLRMCustom:
blue-gray-yellow
0% Created in RVT (30)
Sky-View Factor (SVF) Depressions,
orthogonal buildings
Layer 1SVFBlack to white0% Created in RVT (30, 32)
Prismatic Openness Small buildings,
agricultural features
“Openness” (33)
Layer 1Positive opennessWhite to black50% Created in RVT (30)
Layer 2Negative opennessBlack to white50% Created in RVT (30)
Layer 316-dir. hillshadeRGB: 3,2,10% Created in RVT (30) with
vertical exaggeration of 3–5