Table 1 Relative total muscle effort of labiodental fricatives, bilabial stops, and bilabial approximants in the biomechanical model under the overbite and overjet configuration and the edge-to-edge configuration.

The total cost of a labiodental fricative in the edge-to-edge bite is used as the unit of comparison, with estimates rounded to the nearest decimal. Labiodentals require more effort than bilabials in either bite configuration, but the effort increases more in the edge-to-edge configuration than in the overbite and overjet configuration.

Speech soundConfiguration
Overbite and overjetEdge-to-edge
Labiodental fricative0.71
Bilabial stop0.50.25
Bilabial approximant0.70.5