Table 1 Psychological and behavioral measures.

The 24 measures are grouped into three packages for expositional convenience. The notation “std” indicates that a variable has been standardized, and a percent sign indicates that a variable is expressed as a percent. An asterisk identifies those variables that were used to compute our Individualistic-Impersonal Scale. WVS, World Values Survey (95); ESS, European Social Survey (96); WHO, World Health Organization; UN, United Nations; Lab exp., laboratory experiment; Obs., observation.

VariableTypeAnalysisNDescription
Individualism and independence
1*Individualism (std)ScaleCountries102Hofstede’s widely used scale integrates questions about goals, achievement-orientation, and family ties (97).
2*Creativity (std)SurveyCountries78Asks how important it is to “think up new ideas and be creative; to do things one’s own way” (WVS).
3*EmbeddednessSurveyCountries68Psychological scale capturing an individual’s commitment to stable social relationships and the
existing social order (98, 99).
4*Analytical thinking (%)TaskCountries31Online task to assess analytical versus holistic thinking (100). In a series of triads, participants are asked whether
a target, such as a rabbit, goes with either an analytical option (categories, such as a dog) or a holistic or
relational option (e.g., a carrot).
5Individualism-independence (std)SurveyRegions/migrants>13KA two-question index on the importance of individualism and independence (ESS).
Conformity and obedience
6*Tightness (std)ScaleCountries32Scale measuring people’s perceptions of how closely norms in their society are monitored and
enforced through social pressures and reputational judgments (47).
7*Asch conformity (%)Lab exp.Countries16Line judgment task based on a meta-analysis of 133 studies (see text) (11, 101).
8*Tradition (std)SurveyCountries78Asks people about the importance of tradition (WVS).
9*Obedience (%)SurveyCountries109A binary measure on the importance of inculcating obedience in children (WVS).
10*Proper behavior (std)SurveyCountries78Asks people about the importance of behaving properly and avoiding behavior that others say is wrong (WVS).
11Conformity-obedience (std)SurveyRegions/migrants>13KIndex based on four questions about the importance of conformity and obedience (ESS).
Impersonal prosociality: Impartiality
12*UN diplomatic ticketsObs.Countries149The number of unpaid New York City parking tickets per diplomat, accumulated by UN delegations under immunity (85).
13*Nepotism (std)SurveyCountries117Based on interviews with top executives at the World Economic Forum regarding the degree
to which their senior executives were relatives (102).
14*Particularism (std)Vignette surveyCountries43Based on a vignette called the passenger’s dilemma, this is the percentage of people who endorse lying in
court to help a friend whose reckless driving killed a pedestrian (103).
15*Honesty dice game
(% high claims)
Lab exp.Countries23Students report die rolls of a six-sided die and are paid according to their reported rolls (6).
The percent of high-paying claims indicate dishonesty.
Impersonal prosociality: Impersonal cooperation and trust
16*Public Goods Game (PGG)
first-round contributions
(% endowment)
Lab exp.Countries15First-round contributions in a 10-round laboratory PGG as a percentage of the endowment (4). Participants
were placed in groups with three strangers and interacted anonymously. In each round, they were endowed
with a fixed sum and permitted to contribute any portion to a group project. Contributions were increased
by 60% and distributed equally among the four members.
17*PGG with punishment,
average contributions
Lab exp.Countries15Mean contributions over 10 rounds in a laboratory PGG with punishment (% of endowment) (4).
In this PGG, participants faced the same situation as above, except that they could pay to take money
away from (i.e., punish) other players.
18*Blood donations
(per 1000 people)
Obs.Countries/Italian provinces169/92Frequency of voluntary, unpaid, anonymous blood donations from countries (WHO) and Italian provinces (104).
19*Out-in-group trust (std)SurveyCountries77A six-question index that contrasts trust in family, friends, and neighbors to foreigners, strangers, and
religious outsiders (WVS).
20General trust (std)SurveyRegions/migrants>15KAsks whether “most people can be trusted” or “you can’t be too careful” (ESS).
21General fairness (std)SurveyRegions/migrants>15KAsks whether most people will treat you fairly (ESS).
22Use of checksSurveyItalian regions>32KBinary variable indicating whether a household uses checks (104).
23Loans from family/friendsSurveyItalian regions>32KBinary variable indicating whether a household has loans from friends or families (104).
24% of wealth in cashSurveyItalian regions>32KPercentage of a household’s financial wealth that is kept in cash versus other assets (104).