Table 4 Regression of psychological outcomes on exposure to the medieval Western Church.

Individual-level ordinary least squares (OLS) regressions of ESS-based psychological outcomes on Western Church exposure. Outcome variables were standardized (z-scores). The basic controls are country and survey-wave fixed effects, individual characteristics (gender, age, and age2), and basic geographic controls (agricultural suitability, absolute latitude, mean distance to the sea, and average terrain ruggedness). Robust standard errors clustered for the 440 regions are reported in parentheses. Significance levels are based on two-tailed tests.

PredictorsIndividualism-independenceConformity-obedienceGeneralized trustGeneralized fairness
Church exposure
(in 100 years)
0.009*
(0.005)
0.011*
(0.004)
−0.015**
(0.005)
−0.018**
(0.005)
0.012***
(0.004)
0.012***
(0.003)
0.012***
(0.003)
0.012***
(0.003)
N208,587208,587208,587208,587228,844228,844227,388227,388
Basic controlsYesYesYesYesYesYesYesYes
Religiosity and denominationNoYesNoYesNoYesNoYes

*P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001