Table 5 The children of immigrants in Europe: Regression of psychological outcomes on Church exposure, the KII, and cousin marriage.

Panel 1 reports our OLS regressions of the four psychological outcomes on mother’s origin country’s Western and Eastern Church exposure (in 100 years), KII, and log % cousin marriage. An observation is a respondent with an immigrant mother. All regressions control for standard demographic variables (age, age2, gender), ESS wave and residence-country fixed effects, and origin-country baseline geographic controls (absolute latitude, ruggedness, caloric suitability for agriculture, and mean distance to waterways). Panel 2 mirrors panel 1, except that these regressions were estimated in a non-MFP sample—i.e., the subsample of individuals whose mother’s country of origin experienced <120 years of the MFP. Panel 3 also mirrors panel 1 but reports regressions of the psychological outcomes on the KII of ancestral ethnicity, and with origin-country fixed effects instead of origin-country baseline geographic controls; these regressions also include ethnicity-level controls for settlement complexity, jurisdictional hierarchy, reliance on fishing, animal husbandry, agriculture as means of subsistence, and use of irrigation. Robust standard errors clustered at the resident-country level are reported in parentheses. Significance levels are based on two-tailed tests.

PredictorsIndividualism-independenceConformity-obedienceGeneralized trustGeneralized fairness
Panel 1: Kinship intensity and church exposure of the mother’s country of origin (full sample)
Western Church exposure0.024**
(0.007)
−0.029**
(0.010)
0.020**
(0.006)
0.016*
(0.006)
Eastern Church exposure0.035**
(0.012)
−0.053***
(0.012)
0.025†
(0.015)
0.002
(0.011)
N13,38913,38914,62714,567
KII−0.075*
(0.028)
0.123***
(0.032)
−0.099***
(0.015)
−0.080***
(0.012)
N13,81513,81515,09215,030
Cousin marriage (%, log)−0.067***
(0.012)
0.089***
(0.018)
−0.071***
(0.014)
−0.076***
(0.010)
N8,2088,2088,9438,919
Panel 2: Kinship intensity of the mother’s country of origin (non-MFP sample)
KII−0.073
(0.045)
0.075*
(0.034)
−0.107**
(0.034)
−0.090
(0.056)
N3,7063,7064,0734,058
Cousin marriage (%, log)−0.093**
(0.030)
0.118**
(0.035)
−0.058
(0.036)
−0.096**
(0.029)
N3,2893,2893,6303,620
Panel 3: Kinship intensity of the ancestral ethnicity, with origin-country fixed effects
KII−0.109*
(0.042)
0.169***
(0.046)
−0.067†
(0.039)
−0.105†
(0.056)
N3,0783,0783,3253,306

P ≤ 0.1, *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001