Table 3 Baseline cross-country regressions for psychological outcomes.

Country-level regressions of psychological outcomes with observations from >40 countries on Western and Eastern Church exposure, the KII, and log % cousin marriage. Outcome variables were standardized (z-scores), unless otherwise indicated. All regressions include the set of baseline controls: ruggedness, mean distance to waterways, caloric suitability, and absolute latitude. Robust standard errors are reported in parentheses. Significance levels are based on two-tailed tests.

PredictorsImp.-ind.
psychology
scale
Individualism and independence Conformity and
obedience
Impersonal prosociality
IndividualismCreativityEmbeddedness Obedience
(%)
Tradition UN tickets
(logged)
NepotismBlood
donation
(per 1K)
Out-
in-group
trust
W. Church exp.
(in 100 years)
0.13***
(0.02)
0.14***
(0.03)
0.21***
(0.04)
−0.18***
(0.03)
0.11
(0.55)
−0.16**
(0.05)
−0.13*
(0.06)
−0.13**
(0.04)
2.77***
(0.46)
0.18***
(0.04)
E. Church exp.
(in 100 years)
−0.00
(0.04)
−0.08
(0.06)
0.07
(0.12)
-0.04
(0.07)
0.56
(1.14)
0.15
(0.14)
-0.01
(0.14)
0.09
(0.07)
1.24
(1.45)
0.01
(0.06)
N147926868 9268 13710413567
KII−0.21***
(0.05)
−0.15*
(0.07)
−0.37**
(0.13)
0.61***
(0.08)
2.90*
(1.44)
0.23*
(0.11)
0.52***
(0.13)
0.15†
(0.09)
−2.84**
(1.06)
−0.40**
(0.12)
N151937171 9671 14110813870
Cousin marriage
(%, log)
−0.15***
(0.04)
−0.14†
(0.07)
−0.23*
(0.08)
0.19*
(0.08)
1.63
(1.16)
0.18*
(0.07)
0.31*
(0.15)
0.23**
(0.08)
−2.06*
(0.91)
−0.32**
(0.11)
N69574444 5644 64556244

P ≤ 0.1, *P ≤ 0.05, **P ≤ 0.01, ***P ≤ 0.001